1） 2013年 10月26日（土） 行政棟 ３階中会議室
What Factors Affect the Establishment of Voluntary Fisheries Management? The Case of Pooling Systems in the Management of Sakhalin Surf Clams by Japanese Fishery Cooperatives
Focusing on ‘pooling systems’ in the management of Sakhalin surf clams, this paper examines what factors influence the enforcement of voluntary resource management. We interviewed more than 50 cooperatives from August 2006 through October 2010, and collected data that cannot be obtained by using Fisheries Census. Using the bivariate probit analysis to the choice problem of pooling systems, we find that the number of fishers who engage in surf clams fishing, the length of the coast of the area for a cooperative, and the fishing efficiency significantly affect the introduction of pooling systems. Interestingly, a non-linear relationship between the dependent variable and the number of fishers is clearly observed: small-size and large-size cooperatives are likely to have pooling systems, whereas medium-size cooperatives tend not to have those systems.
【論文タイトル】Relationship Specificity, Market Thickness and International Trade
How does a firm distribution affect gains from trade? To address this question, we develop a dynamic industry model in which relationship specificity endogenously determines the thickness of markets. In a closed economy, a sector with higher relationship specificity becomes a thicker market and attains a higher ratio of matched firms to unmatched firms. When the economy is allowed to trade, the thickness of markets varies in response to matching possibilities among firms in a global economy, indicating that resource allocations induced by trade liberalization cannot be fully understood without an endogenous distribution of firms.
On the Stability of Intra-industry Trade
This paper studies the over-time stability of two-way trade (i.e. intra-industry trade) in product-country pairs in OECD countries. We find that product-country pairs are fairly difficult to sustain intra-industry trade over time and many products frequently switch among two-way, one-way and zero trade over time. Two-way trade is rather unstable. Our estimation results suggest that two-way trade with different market size and long distance is likely to be unstable. In addition primary products are more unstable than manufacturing products.
2） 2013年 10月27日（日） 行政棟 ３階中会議室
Why Do We Need the Movement of Natural Persons Agreement?: A Possible Conclusion of FTAs Fueled by MNP
Using an international oligopoly model, we explore the effects of reductions of trade cost (non-tariff barrier) and travel cost on the home and foreign economies in the presence of endogenous choice of FDI production level. In the case where the home firm produces in both countries, while the consumers always gain from the cost reductions, the effects on the producers are very complex. Using the findings, we discuss the importance of agreement on movement of natural persons (MNP) and show possibilities of FTA conclusion supported by MNP agreement.
Effects of emissions taxes under imperfectly competitive markets: A case of integrated market
This paper investigates emissions taxes from the viewpoint of emission reduction in imperfectly competitive integrated markets. Using a simple monopoly model, we show that the effectiveness of emissions taxes is restricted by source of the emissions (production or consumption), market integration and the spillover effects. We rst show that emissions taxes are not very effective to protect environment when emis-sions are generated by consumption because of the spillover effects stemming from the shape of the demand functions. Other policies such as production taxes and consumption taxes are compared with emissions taxes. Production taxes are more effective than emissions taxes. Shape of the cost function does not play a key role in the integrated markets because the spillover effects mainly stem from the shape of the demand functions under the integrated markets.
【論文タイトル】How to Commit to a Future Price
A monopolist selling durable goods and also consumables that require use of the durable goods faces a commitment problem: each consumer expects the firm to charge a monopoly price for consumables, leading a consumer to have a low willingness to pay for the durable good. The paper considers three credible mechanisms which would induce the firm to charge a low price for the consumables: paying a financial firm to subsidize production of consumables, allowing entry into the consumable market, and selling the durable good to consumers who little value the consumables.
【開催代表者】荒 知宏 （准教授）